File permissions and groups

See also

Access to data (i.e. files and directories) on NeSI is controlled by POSIX permissions, supplemented with Access Control Lists (ACLs). Default permissions differ from file system to file system.

Group membership

Each user has a private user group, of which that user is by default the only member. Each user is also a member of various other groups, such as:

  • A group for each active NeSI project of which that user is a member
  • Groups for all active users, all active Mahuika users, all active Māui users, etc. as appropriate
  • A group representing all active NeSI users who are affiliated with the user's institution
  • Groups for specific licensed software to which that user has been granted access

You can see which groups you are a member of at any time by running the following command on a Mahuika, Māui or Māui ancillary login node:

groups

Files in home directories

Your home directory is owned by you, and its group is usually your personal group. (For historical reasons, some NIWA users' home directories have niwa_nesi_users or niwa_unix_users as the group.) By default, files and directories that are created in your home directory, or copied to your home directory from another network or file system, inherit this ownership scheme. You can override these defaults depending on how you use the cp, scp, rsync, etc. commands. Please consult the documentation for your copying program.

Warning

If you choose to preserve the original owner and group, but that owner and group (name or numeric ID) don't both exist at the destination, your files may end up with odd permissions that you can't fix, for example if you're copying from your workstation to NeSI.

The default permissions mode for new home directories is as follows:

  • The owner has full privileges: read, write, and (where appropriate) execute.
  • The group and world have no privileges.

Some home directories have the "setgid" bit set. This has the effect that files and subdirectories created within the home directory will inherit the owner and group of their parent directory, rather than of the person doing the creating.

Home directories and their contents do not have any ACLs by default.

Files in project directories

Every new project almost always gets two directories, namely a persistent directory in /nesi/project and a scratch directory in /nesi/nobackup. Both these directories are group directories. Both top level project directories are owned by root (i.e. the super-user) and their group is the project group. Files and directories that are created in either place are also in the project group, but the owner is the creating user; or, if the entity doing the creating was an automatic process, the user in whose name the process ran.

Your project directory and nobackup directory should both have the "setgid" bit set, so that files created in either directory inherit the project group.

Warning

The setgid bit only works for files that are created in situ, or copied to the directory over the internet. If a file is moved or copied from elsewhere on the cluster, using for example the mv or cp command, that file will keep its original owner and group.

You probably don't want this to happen. For instructions on how to prevent it, please see our article: How can I let my fellow project team members read or write my files?

By default, the world, i.e. people not in the project team, have no privileges in respect of a project directory, with certain exceptions.

Unlike home directories, project directories are set up with ACLs. The default ACL for a project directory is as follows:

  • The owner of a file or directory is allowed to read, write, execute and modify the ACL of that file or directory
  • Every member of the file or directory's group is allowed to read, write and execute the file or directory, but not modify its ACL
  • Members of NeSI's support team are allowed to read and execute the file or directory, but not change it or modify its ACL

Some projects also have read and execute privileges granted to a group "apache-web02-access".

Each directory has two ACLs: One is for the directory itself, and the other is for files and directories that are created in future within that directory. We have set up both of these ACLs to be the same as each other for the two top level project directories.

Tip

Some project teams, especially those with broader memberships, benefit from read-only groups. A read-only group gets added to a project's ACL once, and then individual members can be added to or removed from that group as required. This approach involves much less editing of file metadata than adding and removing individuals from the ACLs directly. If you would like a read-only group created for your project, please contact us.

The owner of a file or directory may create, edit or revoke that file or directory's ACL and, in the case of a directory, also the directory's default (heritable) ACL.

Warning

Every time you edit an ACL of a file in the home or persistent project directory, the file's metadata changes and triggers a backup of that file. Doing so recursively on a large number of files and directories, especially if they together amount to a lot of disk space, can strain our backup system. Please consider carefully before doing a recursive ACL change, and if possible make the change early on in the life of the project on NeSI, so that only a few files are affected.

Other directories

We may from time to time create and maintain other directories, for example for users of a particular piece of software or database. If you believe you have data storage requirements that don't neatly fit within the home and project scheme described above, please contact our support team. If we agree to set up a special-purpose directory for you, we will discuss and agree upon a suitable permissions model.

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